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15 steps to quit smoking


   Current consumption in Portugal and worldwide.

 
The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest threats to public health that the world faces today and is responsible for the death of 7 million people a year.
Europe has the highest prevalence of tobacco consumers in the world. Estimates suggest that about 29% of people over the age of 15 consume tobacco products, with a higher prevalence in men than in women.
 
 
The prevalence in men between 2000 and 2015 showed a decline in the consumption of tobacco in European countries, with an average decline of 1.5% per year.
In Portugal, data from the 2014 National Health Survey indicates that around 20% were smokers aged 15 and over. The prevalence of consumption was higher in men (27.8%) compared to women (13.2%). The 25-34 age group was the one with the highest prevalence of consumption (32%).

 


The harms of tobacco

 

In the '50s, tobacco was accepted in society without questioning its harmful effects. But in 1964, in the United States, an extensive US Department of Health and Human Services report was published regarding the health effects of tobacco use.

Besides nicotine, cigarettes contain over 4000 substances, several of them with toxic and irritating effects, such as carbon, monoxide, and acetone. More than 40 recognized carcinogens have been identified in cigarette smoke, such as benzene, benzopyrene, arsenic, cadmium, nickel, among others.

 


 


Harmful effects of tobacco on health

 

1. Increased risk of almost all cancers
 
2. Development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 
3. Increased cardiovascular accidents (stroke and venous thrombosis)
 
4. In pregnants: risk of miscarriage, prematurity, placenta previa, perinatal mortality.
 
5. Decreased fertility in both genders
 
6. Early Menopause
 
7. Changes in blood lipids
 
8. Osteoporosis
 
9. Worsening asthma and difficulty controlling it
 
10. A decrease in physical performance
 
11. Decreased taste
 
12. Bad dental condition
 
13. Early Skin Aging
 
 
Tobacco is now known to be one of the leading causes of premature death in the world, accounting for about 18% of all causes of death. In 2016, according to estimates prepared by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, tobacco accounted for 46.4% of deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 19.5% of cancer deaths, and 12% of respiratory infections deaths in the world. lower tract, by 5.7% of deaths from cerebrovascular disease and by 2.4% of deaths from diabetes.
 

 Nicotine Addiction

 

Addiction syndrome, whatever its substance, is a complex phenomenon. It consists of a set of physiological, behavioral and cognitive phenomena that develop after repeated use of the substance, typically associated with an intense desire to use it, difficulty controlling impulses and a high priority given to this behavior over other activities or obligations... Moreover, it is now known that each individual's genetic profile has implications for the risk of developing dependence.
Nicotine is a psychoactive substance with a high capacity to induce physical and psychological dependence. Once absorbed, nicotine reaches the brain in less than ten seconds, leading to dopamine production in a very important brain area. Thus, some effects on nicotine are to improve attention and memory, reduce stress and anxiety, and decrease appetite. However, it induces tolerance, which means that repeated exposure to the same amount of nicotine leads to reduced effects, which may lead to increased doses consumed.

 

Are electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco bad too?


The electronic cigarette, also known as a vaporizer, was created in 2003 and is an electronic device developed for the purpose of simulating a cigarette and smoking. It produces inhalable smoke, with or without nicotine, by heating a liquid.