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Multipurpose sterile needles.
Used to transfer drugs and inject.
Administration by injection (parenteral administration) includes the following routes:
A pharmaceutical product can be prepared or manufactured so that its absorption from the injection site is prolonged for hours, days or longer. Such products do not need to be administered as frequently as those with faster absorption.
In the subcutaneous administration, a needle is inserted into the adipose tissue just under the skin. After a drug is injected, it moves into small blood vessels (capillaries) and is transported through the bloodstream. Alternatively, a drug can reach the bloodstream via the lymphatic vessels (see figure Lymphatic system: helping to protect against infections). Drugs that are large proteins, such as insulin, often reach the bloodstream through the lymph vessels, as these drugs move slowly from the tissues into the capillaries. The subcutaneous route is used for many protein medicines, as they would be destroyed in the digestive tract if taken orally.
Some medications (such as progesterone, used in hormonal birth control) can be administered by inserting plastic capsules under the skin (implant). However, this route is very little used. Its main advantage is that it provides a long-term therapeutic effect (eg etonogestrel implanted for contraception can last up to three years).
The intramuscular route is preferable to the subcutaneous route when larger amounts of a pharmaceutical product are needed. As the muscles are below the skin and fatty tissues, a longer needle is used. Medicines are usually injected into a muscle in the arm, thigh or buttocks. How quickly the drug is absorbed into the bloodstream depends, in part, on the blood supply to the muscle: the smaller the blood supply, the longer the drug takes to be absorbed.
In intravenous administration, a needle is inserted directly into the vein. Thus, the drug-containing solution can be administered in single doses or by continuous infusion. In the case of infusion, the solution is moved by gravity (from a collapsible plastic bag) or by an infusion pump through a thin flexible tube (catheter) inserted into a vein, usually in the forearm. The intravenous route is the best way to deliver an accurate dose throughout the body in a fast and well-controlled manner. It is also used in the administration of irritating solutions, which would cause pain or damage tissue if given by subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. An intravenous injection may be more difficult to give than a subcutaneous or intramuscular injection, as inserting a needle or catheter into a vein can be difficult, especially if the person is obese.
When a drug is given intravenously, it enters the bloodstream immediately and tends to take effect more quickly than when given by any other route. Therefore, doctors carefully monitor people who receive an intravenous injection for signs that the drug is working or is causing unwanted side effects. However, the effect of a drug administered by this route usually lasts for a shorter time. Therefore, some drugs must be administered by continuous infusion to maintain their constant effect.
For the intrathecal route, a needle is inserted between two vertebrae at the bottom of the spine in the space around the spinal cord. In this case, the drug is injected into the spinal canal. A small amount of local anesthetic is often used to numb the injection site. This pathway is used when a drug is required to have a rapid or local effect on the brain, spinal cord, or surrounding tissue (meninges) — for example, to treat infections in these structures. Sometimes anesthetics and pain relievers (such as morphine) are given in this way.
Through the skin
Sometimes a drug is delivered through the skin using a needle (subcutaneously, intramuscularly, or intravenously), patch (transdermally), or implant.
Based on: https://www.msdmanuals.com/
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